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Sabtu, 26 Maret 2011

Passive Voice

Kategori: Grammar - Dibaca: 1511 kali
Kalimat aktif merupakan kalimat yang subjek kalimatnya adalah pelaku sebuah tindakan, sedangkan kalimat pasif adalah kalimat yang subjeknya bukan pelaku suatu tindakan. Si subjek adalah si penerima akibat dari sebuah tindakan.


Bandingkan kalimat-kalimat berikut:

Aktif : Susi mengetik surat ini kemarin
Pasif : Surat ini diketik oleh Susi kemarin
Aktif : Kucingku membunuh seekor tikus
Pasif : Seekor tikus dibunuh oleh kucingku

Catatan:
Gunakan bentuk pasif jika pelaku tindakan tidak begitu penting.

Contoh:

Menara ini dibangun tahun 1955

Kalau kita perlu menyebut siapa pelaku suatu tindakan, gunakan kata oleh (by)

Contoh:

Menara ini telah dibangun oleh Pemerintah Daerah pada tahun 1955

Rumus umum untuk membentuk suatu kalimat Pasif

Aktif : S + Verb (Kata Kerja) + Objek + dll
Pasif : Objek + to be + Verb 3 (Kata Kerja Bentuk III) ( + by subjek) + dll

To be yang digunakan

Present : is, am, are
Past : was, were
Perfect : been (di depan have, has, atau had)
Future : be (setelah modals)
Continuous : being (di depan salah satu dari 7 to be di atas)

Hal-hal yang perlu diketahui dan diingat

Untuk menyatakan suatu kalimat dalam bentuk pasif, tenses tidak berubah. Tenses harus sama dengan kalau kita menyatakannya dalam bentuk aktif. Yang berubah hanya kata kerja-nya.
Kata kerja yang tidak memiliki objek (Kata Kerja Intransitif) tidak dapat diubah menjadi kalimat pasif, seperti, menangis, mendidih, terbit, dll.

Contoh-contoh kalimat aktif dan pasif

Jack sings a song (active)
A song is sung by Jack (Passive)

Jack sang a song yesterday (active)
A song was sung by Jack yesterday (passive)

Jack has sung a song (active)
A song has been sung by Jack (passive)

Jack will sing a song (active)
A song will be sung by Jack (passive)

Jack is singing a song (active)
A song is being sung by Jack (passive)

Jack can sing a song (active)
A song can be sung by Jack (passive)

Beberapa Bentuk Kalimat Passive

1) Passive Imperative Sentence

Rumus:

Let + objek + be + Kata Kerja Bentuk III

Help the poor (active)
Let the poor be helped (passive)

2) Passive Infinitive: It is/was time

Rumus:

It is/was time for + objek + to be + kata kerja III

It is time to send the letter (active)
It is time for the letter to be sent (passive)

3) Negative Passive Imperative Sentence

Rumus:

Subjek + be + Kata kerja III + not to + infinitive

(kata kerja III yang sering digunakan adalah: advised, asked, begged, commanded, requested)

Don�t wait for me (active)
You are advised not to wait for me (passive)

4) Passive Sentence with Verbs of Perception

Rumus

Subjek + be + adjectives + when + subjek + be + kata kerja III

(kata kerja yang digunakan adalah: taste, smell, feel)

This food tastes delicious (active)
This food is delicious when it is tasted (passive)

5) Passive Sentence with Certain Verbs followed by �that-clause�

Kata kerja yang digunakan adalah: accept, admit, agree, assume, believe, decide, expect, find out, intend, plan, point out, presume, prove, regret, report, say, think, understand.

We regretted that the principal had to resign from office (active)
It was regretted that the principal had to resign from office (passive)

6) Passive Sentence with Nouns or Adjectives as Complements

I consider her very pretty (active)
She is considered very pretty (passive)

7) Passive Sentence with two objects

He gave me a book (active)
A book was given to me by him (passive 1)
I was given a book by him (passive 2)

8) Passive Sentence with Gerund Verbs

The teacher enjoyed teaching the students (active)
The students enjoyed being taught by the teacher (passive)

9) Agent consisting long expression at the end of sentence

Dalam kalimat pasif, jika pelaku terdiri dari ekspresi yang panjang, sebaiknya subjek tersebut ditempatkan di akhir kalimat setelah by.

We were all surprised by her sudden announcement to get married
I was confused by his plan to stop the ongoing project and begin a new one.

10) Passive Sentence with unique verbs

Kata kerja yang digunakan adalah: require, deserve, need

This wall needs to be painted (sama dengan)
This wall needs painting.

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